Evolution is a long, long process with extreme complexity and involves many species. Dr. C. P. Lottery is currently investigating a simplified model of evolution: consider that we have N (2 <= N <= 200) species in the whole process of evolution, indexed from 0 to N -1, and there is exactly one ultimate species indexed as N-1. In addition, Dr. Lottery divides the whole evolution process into M (2 <= M <= 100000) sub-processes. Dr. Lottery also gives an 'evolution rate' P(i, j) for 2 species i and j, where i and j are not the same, which means that in an evolution sub-process, P(i, j) of the population of species i will transform to species j, while the other part remains unchanged. Given the initial population of all species, write a program for Dr. Lottery to determine the population of the ultimate species after the evolution process. Round your final result to an integer.
In chapter 4 of the game Trails in the Sky SC, Estelle Bright and her friends are crossing Mistwald to meet their final enemy, Lucciola.
Mistwald is a mysterious place. It consists of M * N scenes, named Scene (1, 1) to Scene (M, N). Estelle Bright and her friends are initially at Scene (1, 1), the entering scene. They should leave Mistwald from Scene (M, N), the exiting scene. Note that once they reach the exiting scene, they leave Mistwald and cannot come back. A scene in Mistwald has four exits, north, west, south, and east ones. These exits are controlled by Lucciola. They may not lead to adjacent scenes. However, an exit can and must lead to one scene in Mistwald.
Lele now is thinking about a simple function f(x).
If x < 10 f(x) = x.
If x >= 10 f(x) = a0 * f(x-1) + a1 * f(x-2) + a2 * f(x-3) + …… + a9 * f(x-10);
And ai(0<=i<=9) can only be 0 or 1 . Now, I will give a0 ~ a9 and two positive integers k and m ,and could you help Lele to caculate f(k)%m.
Queues and Priority Queues are data structures which are known to most computer scientists. The Queue occurs often in our daily life. There are many people lined up at the lunch time.
Given a n × n matrix A and a positive integer k, find the sum S = A + A2 + A3 + … + Ak.